While the narrative and scenic character of Moche iconography has been amply shown and discussed through the years, the possibility of equivalent scenes and narratives in Tiwanaku imagery is normally excluded from current scholarship. I would thank Pablo Rendón, George F. Lau, Kevin Lane, and the three anonymous referees for their valuable advice. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 18 (1): 40-54. Gomez, Leila Gabriela; publication date . caracterización de sus recursos forestales como elemento indispensable para su gestión, para la construcción [ Links ], Donnan, C., 2004. In Tiwanaku: Papers from the 2005 Mayer Center Symposium at the Denver Art Museum, M. Young-Sánchez, Ed., pp. Ancient Alterity in the Andes: A Recognition of Others. 70-75, 81-85, 90-93. Secondary elements also appear to correspond to half a row. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press. Moche Portraits from Ancient Peru. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Peruvian Archaeology in 1942. It can be useful in providing a first rationale for still unidentified complex anthropomorphs with counter-intuitive attributes. [ Links ], Lau, G., 2013. This article reviews recent advances in Tiwanaku iconography with the aim of further examining how aspects of Tiwanaku carved imagery may be approached as potential scenes of ritual action. 281-292. En este texto se revisan las diversas nociones del espacio público en su dimensión comunicativa y se describen los elementos de correspondencia en la ciudad construida. Photo and drawing: M. Viau-Courville). Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. An appropriate point of entry to our discussion is the reported absence of scenes within Tiwanaku stone carved imagery, a fact noted in other studies (e. g., Posnansky 1945; Kubler 1984; Makowski 2001a, 2009). The Thematic Approach to Moche Iconography. [ Links ], Bourget, S. & K. L. Jones (Eds. Antigüedades Peruanas. Figure 3. degradación de los bosques (REDD+). He cited, and translated, a passage from Bernabé Cobo's Historia del Nuevo Mundo which stated that: After the Sun, ranked Thunder, God of Weather, to whom prayers for rain were addressed. 5). And since an Egyptian representation was limited to these three plans (except that the sculptor juxtaposed while the master of a two-dimensional art fused them), the 'technical' proportions could not but be identical with the 'objective'. 67-107. II: 166). 133-164. 307-351. World Archaeology 38 (2): 469-492. Die Ruinenstaette von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des Alten Peru. Y que así uisto el dicho bulto y figura hecho a huir ynca Yupanqui y el bulto de la estatua le llamo por su nombre de dentro de la fuente, diçiendole "veni aca hijo, no tengais temor, que yo soy el Sol vuestro padre, y se que aueis de sujetar muchas naciones; tened muy gran quenta conmigo de me rreuerenciar y acordaros en vuestros sacrificios de mi" y así desaparecio el bulto y quedo el espejo de cristal en la fuente y el ynca le tomo y guardo; en el qual diçen después uia todas las cosas que quaría. The Stones of Tiahuanaco: A Study of Architecture and Construction. El propósito de este manual es que los países asuman la While textile design configuration may be governed by a fundamental pictorial convention including visual distortion and/or a vanishing line format, images carved on stone do not depend on an equivalent application of the same pictorial convention. In The Junius B. Bird Conference on Andean Textiles, April 7th-8th, 1984, pp. Sculpted images like the Bennett or Ponce Monoliths were positioned and oriented strategically inside the ceremonial cores. 101-124. In Andean Archaeology II, H. Silverman & W. H. Isbell, Eds., pp. Figure 17. a) Recuay scene with central personage and attendants (from Lau 2010: fig. However, the content that it may display on stone, may actually reiterate a known Andean pattern of representing important (human) individuals and their attendants, in this case ritual specialists attended by ritual participants. American Anthropologist 11 (4): 624-662. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Inca Sacred Space: Landscape, Site and Symbol in the Andes. Revista del Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú 25: 175-203. The vertical lines, in turn, would serve to divide 'image units' that are never logarithmic (Conklin 1986: 125) (fig. Further studies in Tiwanaku architecture by Janusek (2006: 486) showed "a significant shift in axiality from north-south-oriented structures that made reference to local natural features, to east-west-oriented monumental complexes that made visual and metaphorical reference to more distant mountains and celestial cycles". Vaso kero Tiwanaku con personaje guerrero (Museo Regional Tiwanaku. [ Links ], Uribe, M. & C. Agüero, 2004. There is little contextual information indicative of its original location apart from the fact that it was found at the Kalasasaya complex (Posnansky 1945: 216-219; see also Schaedel 1952: 253, 'Tiahuanaco 20'). 4). London: Thames & Hudson. Figura 5. In his study of embodied practices and social memory, Connerton (1989: 73) also maintained that "Power and rank are commonly expressed through certain postures relative to others; from the way in which people group themselves and from the disposition of their bodies relative to the bodies of others, we can deduce the degree of authority which each is thought to enjoy or to which they lay claim". How Societies Remember. Dibujo de una pintura mural de Pañamarca (adaptado de Donnan 1979: 415, fig. B, Québec, QC, GIK 7A6, Canada. More importantly, he argued for the concept of visual narratives as vehicles for the transmission of religious ideas through time. 135-150. The fact that these heads face opposite to each other may be attributed to circulation (of energy). Directionality of the imagery carved on stone monoliths, especially stelae, may have likewise followed the course of external agents, not central personages. Viena: Hartleben's Verlag. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press, Harvard University. La Paz. The same denominator was subsequently used to refer to other such anthropomorphs found throughout the Andes—presented as a frontally positioned human-like figure holding vertical attributes, one in each hand. . Recent arguments by Bandy's (2013) discuss the directional indicators of energy or "sami" in imagery of Tiwanaku carved stones provides further evidence to suggest that directionality may have been a matter concerning an external agent and not focused on central personages. In her view, "transferred to space with perspective, the Gateway of the Sun unfolds as [...] a bicephalous serpent moving in serpentines on the ground with twelve rayed faces to the right and left of the serpent's body" (Clados 2009: 104). Keeping the example of the Bennett imagery, its original orientation is unknown7. Tiwanaku and its precursors: Recent research and emerging perspectives. [ Links ], Rowe, J., 1962. Figura 12. Basalt block (46.5 cm x 16.3 cm) excavated at the Semi-Subterranean Temple with “Staff God” personages (Museo Lítico de Tiwanaku. London: Archetype. Sevilla: Imp. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 5: 397-426. E-mail: mviaucourville@mcq.org. 2, A. L. Kolata, Ed., pp. The other was called Chuquiylla, representing lightning, placed on the left of the Sun. They were often flanked by attendant personages who appeared in profile view; these are usually referred to as floating, kneeling, or running angels (Rowe 1971: 117; Menzel 1977: 33). [ Links ], Sawyer, A., 1963. Los textiles de Pulacayo y las relaciones entre Tiwanaku y San Pedro de Atacama. Figura 2. Furthermore, I thank Constantino M. Torres and Donna Torres for my use of their drawings of Tiwanaku stone sculptures. In Los Dioses del Antiguo Peru (T2), K. Makowski, Ed., pp. Studies by Sawyer, Conklin and Clados provide details as to how Middle Horizon visual art may have differed significantly by comparison to imagery found in previous periods of Andean culture. The Gateway Staff God is flanked by several anthropomorphs in profile view with complex head appendages and holding staff-like attributes4. La Paz: CIMA. Map of the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca showing the location of Tiwanaku and La Paz. Such flows and distribution of energy may be represented by the two heads "emanating" from the kero attribute held in the hands of most Tiwanaku stelae, such as the Ponce, representing bubbles and foam (Bandy 2013: 145). The registered themes were like "fragments of ancient narrative [that] can be pieced together to retrieve the myths that this art illustrated" (Quilter 1997: 113). Pre-Columbian Symbolic Communication. However, as previously discussed, there is little direct evidence to support the idea that the personages are gods. This still remains a difficult hypothesis to maintain given the lack of written evidence from this period or area of the Andes. The Semi-Subterranean Temple underwent significant renovations including a new floor and stone sculptures such as the Bennett Monolith and the Basalt Stone (Ponce-Sanginés 2001 [1963]). 6). Meaning in the Visual Arts. Their attributes and spatial organization rather points to their status as ritual practitioners, or at least divinity impersonators, following Janusek's (2006) suggestion. . He held a war club in one hand and a sling in the other, and wore shining garments. The city participated in, and managed diverse allegiances with neighboring communities and its influence has been noted as far as southern Peru, eastern Bolivia, as well as parts of Chile and Argentina (Moseley 1992; Kolata 1993a; Janusek 2008). Figure 18. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Sawyer's analysis of Tiwanaku textiles and tunics showed how woven designs tended to expand or compress, depending on a motifs' relationship to either the edges or the centre of the textile, he termed this "lateral distortion". In Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland, Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. Quite the contrary, the contention is that if the figures are indeed representations of "gods", i. e., cases of Andean divine anthropomorphism, then a more compelling question arises at to how the classification further informs on past Andean society. * Musées de la civilisation, 16, rue de la Barricade, C.P. Siempre en aras de contribuir con la gestión del conocimiento y el fortalecimiento de Berlin: Staatlische Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz. However, there remains a need to further detail how the underlying pictorial convention directly applies and how it adapts to stone sculpture, specifically. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. Textiles have been central to the understanding of the Andean past, used both as objects for social regulation and as a means to distributing vital information concerning people's worldviews (Murra 2004). The Bennett imagery also follows the basic configuration of a central personage flanked by a set of attendants. Similar weaponry is also found on a set of Tiwanaku human-like personages painted on drinking vessels (kero) and referred to as warriors (Ponce-Sanginés 2003; see also Kolata 2004: 109). Figure 9. Foto: M. Viau-Courville). Tiwanaku: Espacio, tiempo y cultura. El panteón Tiahuanaco y las deidades con báculos. Lunes 12 de Mayo Miércoles 23 de Abril SEMANA 2 SEMANA 3 Miércoles 14 de Mayo semana 4 24 y 27 de Marzo Tutorial semana 2 10 y 12 de Marzo semana 1 3- 5 de Marzo SEGUNDO DEPARTAMENTAL SEMANA 5 TERCER DEPARTAMENTAL GEOMETRIA Y CONFIGURACIÓN ESPACIAL Lunes … These interpretations assume a vertical, two-dimensional, approach to the imageries whose symbolic meaning reveals (at least) a mathematical template indicating either solar or lunar cycles (Zuidema 2009). 167-182. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America. Washington D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Pre-Columbian Symposia and Colloquia Series. In his seminal paper on Inka religion, Rowe (1946) contended that the central figure of the Gateway of the Sun could be associated to the god of thunder, Tunupa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29 (3): 327-351. Demarest cited a passage from a Colonial text. Based on this new line of reasoning, he argued that Sawyer's lateral distortion was more consistent with what he called a convergence toward a "vanishing horizon" as sets of horizontal lines organized logarithmically (Conklin 1986: 124). Based on these renderings some argued that the iconography—if treated as a flat, two-dimensional pictorial environment—may have represented a calendar system similar to the one carved on the Gateway (Posnansky 1945, Vol. Estimación del carbono a partir de inventarios forestales nacionales. Conklin (1986) later proposed an alternative interpretation to this model, one in which he considered the visual distortion as being rather indicative of the designer's cosmic point of view. London: Routledge. [ Links ], Meddens, F.; K. Willis, C. McEwan & N. Branch, 2014. [ Links ], Rice, D. S. [ Links ], Mitre, B., 1954. Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas. The Gateway Staff God, in particular, has been cited as a representation of the god creator Viracocha. Each row appears roughly of the same height. Before discussing the specific details of the Gateway personages, it is useful to briefly review here the intellectual basis of the interpretation of Andean Staff Gods and the role of the Gateway in the understanding of the Andean staffed personages. Overview; Additional Document Info; Overview CU Boulder Authors . Molina (1916 [1575]: 17-18) wrote that: Dizen que antes que fuse señor, yendo a uisitar a su padre Uiracocha ynca que estaua en Sacsahuana, cinco leguas de Cuzco, al tiempo que llego vna fuente llamada Susurpuquio vido caer vna tabla de cristal en la misma fuente, dentro de la qual vido vna figure de yndio en la forma siguiente: en la caueça de colodrillo della, a lo alto le salian tres rayos muy resplandeçientes a manera de rayos del Sol los vnos y los otros: y en los enquentros de los braços vnas culebras enrroscadas; en la caueça vn llanto como ynca y las orejas joradas y en ellas puestas vnas orejas como ynga; y los trajes y uestidos como ynca. Descripción sumaria del templete semisubterráneo de Tiwanaku. de E. Rasco. Con base en un diagnóstico regional y los resultados de talleres regionales, en donde se contó con representantes oficiales de los puntos focales REDD+ de los países, el Programa identificó la necesidad de desarrollar un manual de buenas prácticas que contribuya a la recolección, manejo y análisis de datos de inventarios nacionales forestales. Historia del Nuevo Mundo (Tomo III). ), 1993. The Mythic Geometry of the Ancient Southern Sierra. Staff Gods, as argued here, are probably one of the most enduring factoids in Andean studies. Inca Religion and Customs. In fact, the imagery appears to reproduce a pattern of scenic configuration that dates to earlier phases of Andean development. The Inca took the tablet and kept it; it is said that after this it served him as a mirror in which he say anything he wanted, and in memory of this vision, when he was king, he had a statue made of the Sun, which was none other than the image he had seen in the crystal, and he built a temple of the Sun called Coricancha, with the magnificence and richness that it had at the time when the Spaniards, because before it was a small and humble structure. Drawing of a section of the Pachacama Monolith by Posnansky (Posnansky collection, Museo Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz). [ Links ], Squier, G. E., 1877. [ Links ], Kolata, A., 2004. [ Links ], Cook, A., 1983. Such visual distortion on tunics, he argued, was indicative of an evolution in the designs from what he felt were more "realistic" carved images as seen on the Gateway of the Sun monolith to their more "abstract" and intricate counterparts woven on tunics, estimated to date to a later stage of development (fig. Imágenes escultóricas de las deidades antropomorfas en el Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrara, M. Gierz, K. Makowski & P. Przadka, Eds., pp. The Cochamama Monolith, found south of the Akapana, may also represent such a scenic configuration, though in this case instead of being surrounded by other anthropomorphs, the central figure appears flanked by sets of unidentified elements (fig. Perhaps the best documented Moche scene is that of the Presentation Theme (Donnan 1978: 158-173, 1979), now generally referred to as the Sacrifice Ceremony. This image was most highly venerated by all. [ Links ], Rowe, J., 1946. The Iconography of the Art of Teotihuacán. capacidades en los países de América Central y el Caribe y América Latina en general, el CATIE se complace Latin American Antiquity 4 (1): 22-47. The study of Tiwanaku woven imagery mainly developed from analyses and comparisons between carved imagery stone monoliths from Tiwanaku and Tiwanaku-influenced images found on textiles from San Pedro de Atacama (northern Chile) (Oakland 1986, 1994; Oakland & Cassman 1995; Uribe & Agüero 2001, 2004; Agüero 2007). Following previous observations made by Kroeber (1949: 442), he also argued how the Tiwanaku stone sculptures represented textiles, and not vice versa. Bloque de basalto (46,5 x 16,3 cm) excavado en el templo semisubterráneo, con “dioses de báculos” (Museo Lítico de Tiwanaku. [ Links ], Quilter, J., 1997. Palo Alto: Peek Publications. Identified differences included matters of visual perspective, representation of depth, directionality of the images, as well as the spatial organization of the personages. [ Links ], Stone-Miller, R., 2002. B. Bird Conference on Andean textiles, April 7th-8th, 1984, pp. Les deux Tiahuanaco. The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. He concluded that instead of approaching and representing depth using a vanishing point format as seen in Western art, Middle Horizon imagery and architecture appear to have developed a vanishing line format as a conventionalized rule for the representation of visual perspective. The latter, it would appear, suggests that Tiwanaku art would include cases of divine anthropomorphism—that is, a god represented in human-like form. 131-141. National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Los procesos de urbanización en las sociedades latinoamericanas. [ Links ], Menzel, D., 1964. In Tiwanaku: Papers from the 2005 Mayer Center Symposium at the Denver Art Museum, M. Young-Sánchez, Ed., pp. The Development of the Ritual Core of Tiwanaku. The Staff God: Icon and Image in Andean Art. Especificamente, a experiência da autora nas atividades do grupo temático Informal, Formal e Colaborativo – IFC foi elemento fundamental na redação do presente capítulo. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 5: 309-336. • Elementos verticales Elementos lineales verticales Plano vertical Configuración en “L” Configuración en “U” Encierro Planos paralelos 11. [ Links ], Eisleb, D., 1987. [ Links ], Urton, G., 1988. If so, the motifs in the centre portion of the pyramid would also seem to follow the path of the staircase, perhaps emphasizing the importance of water and its circulation in Tiwanaku cosmology. [ Links ], Rivero, M. E. & J. D. Tschudi, 1851. [ Links ], Torres, C. M., 2004. 10). New York: Penguin Books. These personages hold what appear to be arrows and a type of weapon, possibly a spear-thrower (fig. In Approaching Religion, T. Ahlback, Ed., pp. Drawing of the back side of Cochamama Monolith (Posnansky collection, Museo Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz). [ Links ], Vranish, A. Ceremonia de sacrificio Moche (adaptado de Donnan 1979: 409, fig. Vaasa: Åbo Akademi University, The Donner Institute. The Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru. [ Links ], Donnan, C., 1979. In Andean Art at Dumbarton Oaks, E. H. Boone, Ed., pp. For instance, Berenguer (2000: 32-33) described the rapport between staffed personages and attendants as a type of shaman-devotee relationship. Foto y dibujo: M. Viau-Courville). 175-201. The basis of interpretation is mostly ethnohistorical. The Incas and their Ancestors. Summarized by Quilter (1997: 113), "it is, in a sense, an attempt to progress from still photography to motion pictures, to move from isolating characters and the scenes in which they appear to viewing the characters as actors in a story that can be seen mostly in segments and, rarely, in longer 'clips' of film". [ Links ], Makowski, K., 2005. The Construction and Reconstruction of Ritual Space at Tiwanaku, Bolivia (AD 500-1000). Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. El mundo andino: población, medio ambiente y economía. Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations. Moche Politics, Religion, and Warfare. Another passage from Cobo (1892 [1653]: 324, emphasis added) accentuates the human appearance of Viracocha: El dios más respetado dellos, después del Viracocha, era el que más campea y se señala entre todas la criaturas corporales, que es el Sol; cuya veneración creció mucho por la diligencia de los Incas, que como se jactaban de hijos suyos, pusieron todo su conato en autorizarla y levantarla de pinto con más lucio culto, número de sacerdotes y frecuencia de ofrendas y sacrificios. Especial): 1055-1068. 7). Ritual y narración en la iconografía Mochica. Además, se tomaron en cuenta experiencias generadas en varios países de Latinoamérica, con el apoyo técnico brindado por la FAO. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. 3 – Configurar una Red domestica o de Oficina pequeña. This interpretation also implied that the central "Staff God" personage was the representation of a real individual shown while performing a religious act and not a representation of a supernatural entity, i. e., not a case of divine anthropomorphism in Andean art. [ Links ], Isbell, H. W. & P. J. Knobloch, 2006. For the purposes of this essay, a scene is understood as the pictorial unity emphasized by the conceptual relationship between the different elements in the pictorial landscape. Iconos y narraciones: La reconstrucción de una secuencia de imágenes Moche. Washington D. C.: The Textile Museum. In Tiwanaku: Papers from the 2005 Mayer Center Symposium at the Denver Art Museum, M. Young-Sánchez, Ed., pp. Lima: Banco de Crédito. The Flow of Cosmic Power: Religion, Ritual, and the People of Tiwanaku. For instance, Sawyer (1963: 29) explains how compression and expansion in textile imagery are achieved by "the simple expedient of adding or subtracting from the number of weft threads used to form the elements in a given zone". [ Links ], Uribe, M. & C. Agüero, 2001. arquitectura etc. Tiwanaku has been described as an architectural model of the natural world—perhaps modeled after the nearby Quimsachata mountain chain and its springs (Kolata 1993a). [ Links ], Kolata, A., 1993b. In this context, that the attendant figures are placed opposite to the central personage, in and of itself, is not indicative of these images as not being scenes. The personages, then, seem rather a type of front-faced personage represented holding different kinds of paraphernalia, not just spear-throwers, and most certainly not just "staffs" (see also Quilter 2012). [ Links ], Bennett, W., 1956. Central to her argument were the curves of the meander of the Gateway of the Sun as not representing an up and down pattern, but one of back and front (Clados 2009: 104-107). Símbolos mágico-religiosos en la cultura andina. A tool for iconographic analysis is the rollout drawing of a given pictorial environment carved on stone. We can assume a conceptual relationship between the various represented anthropomorphic personages, i. e., between central personages and attendants where the constant greater size of the former emphasizes its high status. Of course, should central personages be, in fact, deities it would be highly unusual for the attendant figures to face away from them. 731-759. By applying what she referred to as "three-dimensional glasses", she argued that Tiwanaku iconography offers surprising results of horizontal ground-based visual spaces—what she also referred to as "ground lines"5. Instead of examining stone carved imagery in terms of perspective (Sawyer 1963) and technique (Conklin 1986) this article considers the scenic value of the imagery by taking into account spatial organization, i. e., the orientation and position, or locale, of motifs within a given pictorial environment. El objetivo de este proyecto es caracterizar la configuración espacial de la vereda El Verjón Alto mediante los conceptos de Conservación, la normatividad ambiental y …

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