Hannibal and the Carthaginians had relied on cavalry superiority in previous battles such as Cannae, but Scipio, recognizing their importance, held the cavalry advantage at Zama. Carthaginian cavalry carried out Hannibal's instructions well and there was no sign of Roman cavalry on the battlefield. A játékmenet erősen épít a terület mozgatás és a kockadobás mechanizmusokra. The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. The second line of citizen levies and the mercenaries' remnants assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line. El campo se hallaba cubierto de sangre y cadáveres, de modo que los veteranos hubieron de mantenerse a la defensiva. La batalla de Zama (19 de octubre del 202 a. C.) representó el desenlace de la segunda guerra púnica. La caballería italiana de Cayo Lelio atacó, persiguiendo a los jinetes cartagineses fuera del campo de batalla. Sintiéndose amenazado, huyó de la ciudad, pues sus dirigentes pretendían entregarle a Roma, en la cual había rumores de que el cartaginés se rearmaba para entrar nuevamente en guerra. Los romanos adoptaron la disposición clásica de batalla de la legión, denominada triplex acies: con los lanceros hastati en primera línea, los veteranos príncipes en segunda y los lanceros triarii, armados con lanzas largas, detrás. The resulting clash was fierce and bloody, with neither side achieving superiority. Atacados desde los flancos por las lanzas de los legionarios, los elefantes murieron o retrocedieron hacia las líneas cartaginesas. The Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal, who was still in Italy (although confined to the south of the peninsula) when Scipio landed in Africa, in 203 BC. Scipio and his supporters eventually convinced the Senate to ratify the plan, and Scipio was given the requisite authority to attempt the invasion. Tras esto, se desarrolló una batalla de infantería en tres fases, en la cual los infantes romanos fueron disgregando cada una de las dos primeras líneas cartaginesas, hasta que se produjo el encuentro con la tercera línea, formada por los veteranos italianos de Aníbal. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. Los romanos realizaron la estrategia de abrir pasillos entre sus filas para dejar pasar a las bestias, aprovechando la ocasión para saetearlas. [7]:96 He was later authorized to employ the regular forces stationed in Sicily, which consisted mainly of the remnants of the 5th and 6th Legion, exiled to the island as a punishment for the humiliation they suffered at the Battle of Cannae. Escipión, que ahora era lo suficientemente poderoso, propuso poner fin a la guerra al invadir directamente la tierra natal del cartaginés. [10], Hannibal's army consisted of 36,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 80 war elephants, while Scipio had a total of 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. Hannibal's third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army, which had been redeployed into a single line. Scipio's soldiers avoided the elephants by opening their ranks and drove them off with missiles. Confident in Hannibal's forces, the Carthaginians broke the armistice with Rome. Zama The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. Aníbal formó a sus treinta y siete mil infantes (cincuenta mil, según Apiano) en tres líneas, tres mil jinetes a los flancos y alrededor de ochenta elefantes[14]​ en el frente. Seizing this opportunity, Masinissa led his Numidian cavalry and charged at the Carthaginian left wing, which was also composed of Numidian cavalry, and was unknowingly lured off the field. The remaining elephants are lured through the lanes and killed. Aníbal huyó con los restos de sus tropas. The Battle of Zama was fought in 202 BC near Zama, now in Tunisia, and marked the end of the Second Punic War. [7]:119, Scipio continued to reinforce his troops with local defectors. Click on the Bus route to see step by step directions with maps, line arrival times and updated time schedules. De este modo, Aníbal había extendido la longitud de su segunda línea con miras a envolver al ejército oponente con un movimiento de pinza similar, aunque metodológicamente diferente, a como había hecho en la batalla de Cannas. Sin embargo, Escipión había deducido su estrategia y decidió contrarrestarla mediante la imitación, por lo que él también ordenó formar una sola línea con los hastati, princeps y triarii, igualando así la longitud del ejército de Aníbal e impidiéndole envolverle. [5] The Senate initially opposed this ambitious design of Scipio, persuaded by Quintus Fabius Maximus that the enterprise was far too hazardous. Scipio played for time as he redeployed his forces in a single line with the hastati in the middle, the principes in the inner wings and the triarii on the outer wings. Bus: 2; Train: C-1; How to get to Calle Batalla de Zama by Bus? The bulk of them managed to escape and position themselves on the wings of the second line on Hannibal's instructions. [22]​ Sus acciones militares quedarían condicionadas a la autorización romana, algo que, junto con diversas humillaciones, terminaría desembocando en la tercera guerra púnica, en la que la ciudad de Cartago sería finalmente arrasada. La entrada en combate de los veteranos de la guerra en Italia, desgastadas las menos numerosas tropas de infantería romanas, inclinó la balanza del lado de Aníbal, cuyas tropas empezaron a ganar terreno. One third of Hannibal's army were citizen levies, and the Romans had 6,100 cavalry to Carthage's 4,000, as most of the Numidian cavalry that Hannibal had employed with great success in Italy had defected to the Romans. [14] He believed that if he opened gaps in his troops, the elephants would simply pass between them without harming any of his soldiers. The greatest concern for Scipio was the elephants. [12] Hannibal intentionally held back his third infantry line, in order to thwart Scipio's tendency to pin the Carthaginian center and envelop his opponent's lines, as he had done at the Battle of Ilipa. Lacus Curtius: Las guerras púnicas de Apiano de Alejandría, Zama: el final de la segunda guerra púnica, https://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Batalla_de_Zama&oldid=130078728, Wikipedia:Artículos con datos por trasladar a Wikidata, Wikipedia:Artículos con coordenadas en Wikidata, Wikipedia:Artículos con identificadores LCCN, Wikipedia:Páginas con enlaces mágicos de ISBN, Licencia Creative Commons Atribución Compartir Igual 3.0, 20 000-25 000 muertos y 8500-20 000 prisioneros. With this reinforcement the Roman front renewed their attack and defeated Hannibal's second line. El Senado, persuadido por Fabio Máximo, se opuso inicialmente a este ambicioso plan. Este último combate permaneció igualado hasta que regresaron Cayo Lelio y Masinisa al mando de la caballería y el ejército púnico sucumbió, decidiéndose la batalla. The Roman second line joined the struggle and pushed back the Carthaginian assault. Siguiendo este plan, se obligó a la primera línea púnica a dividirse en dos retroceder por ambos lados de la segunda, donde Aníba les instruyó a tomar nuevas posiciones. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. 2. DATOS DE LA BATALLA Victoria aplastante para los Hannibal moved forward with two lines; the third line of veterans was kept in reserve. The panicked Carthaginians felt that they had no alternative but to offer peace to Scipio, and having the authority to do so, Scipio granted peace on generous terms. [11] The first line consisted of mixed infantry of mercenaries from Gaul, Liguria and the Balearic Islands. [8] Meanwhile, the Carthaginians breached the armistice agreement by capturing a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripping it of supplies. Though this formation was well-conceived, it failed to produce a Carthaginian victory. The plan was that when the elephants charged, these lanes would open, allowing them to pass through the legionaries' ranks and be dealt with at the rear of the army. Con ambos ejércitos frente a frente, los romanos soplaron los cuernos de batalla. [2] Putting his cavalry on the flanks, with the inexperienced Carthaginian cavalry on the right and the Numidians on the left, Hannibal aligned the rest of his troops in three straight lines behind his elephants. Los cartagineses formaron tres unidades, colocando a los ochenta elefantes al frente. La batalla de Zama (19 de octubre del 202 a. C.) representó el desenlace de la segunda guerra púnica. The battle took place at Zama Regia, near Siliana 130 km southwest of Tunis. Esta página se editó por última vez el 14 oct 2020 a las 23:03. The combat was fierce and evenly matched. En 205 a. C., Escipión regresó a Roma, donde fue elegido cónsul por voto unánime. Under the treaty, Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, by that time a fait-accompli. Venning, Timothy & Drinkwater, John (2011). This also gave an edge in turn to Scipio, who relied greatly on his Roman heavy cavalry and Numidian light cavalry. Scipio lost 4,000–5,000 men, and 1,500–2,500 Romans and 2,500 Numidians were killed. The Carthaginian infantry was encircled and annihilated. De acuerdo con Apiano, entre los mandos romanos y aliados númidas que secundaron a Escipión durante la batalla, estaba el propretor de la flota con base en Cerdeña, Cneo Octavio, un legado llamado Minucio Termo, Cayo Lelio, Dacamas y Masinisa. The Carthaginians lost 20,000–25,000 killed and 8,500–20,000 captured. The Carthaginians no longer believed a treaty advantageous, and rebuffed it under much Roman protest.[9]. Masinissa was to be allowed to expand Numidia into parts of Africa. Masinisa ordenó cargar a su caballería númida contra la menos numerosa de Tiqueo. Carthaginian cavalry routed off the field. Hannibal led an army comprising Spanish mercenaries, Gallic allies, local citizens and veterans, and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns. Hannibal experienced a major defeat that put an end to all resistance on the part of Carthage. At this point there was a pause in the battle as both sides redeployed their troops. It was the end of the Second Punic War. Scipio orders his cavalry to blow loud horns to terrify the charging beasts. He came up with an ingenious plan to deal with them. Aníbal regresó a África desde el sur de Italia en auxilio de Cartago, que en aquellos momentos había perdido batalla tras batalla contra el ejército romano que había desembarcado en 204 a.C. bajo el mando de Publio Cornelio Escipión. When Rome waged war again on Carthage about 50 years later, the Carthaginians had little power and could not defeat the by-then very aged Masinissa in Africa. Batalla de Zama CONCLUSIÓN LO QUE NOS HAN LLAMADO LA ATENCIÓN... No había ejército en África para oponerse a Esciprión "SI hubiera vencido en Zama, sería el mayor general de la historia, por delante de Alejandro Magno" Aníbal. The following transit lines have routes that pass near Calle Batalla de Zama. Escipión finalmente desembarcó en África en el año 203 a. C. Unos cuantos años antes de la invasión, la decisiva victoria de Escipión en la batalla de Ilipa en Hispania en el año 206 a. C. había asegurado a Roma el control de la península ibérica. Need a translated version? One provision of the treaty was that the Carthaginians were not allowed to make war without Roman consent. Nesta batalla o exército da República Romana, liderado por Publio Cornelio Escipión o Africano, derrotou as forzas de Cartago lideradas por Aníbal. A pesar de la humillante derrota, Aníbal logró huir a Cartago. From Poligono Industrial Lo Bolarín, La Unión 57 min. En ella se enfrentaron el general cartaginés Aníbal Barca y el joven Publio Cornelio Escipión, «el Africano Mayor», en las llanuras de Zama Regia. Once the Carthaginian cavalry was far enough away, they turned and attacked the Roman cavalry but were eventually routed. Meanwhile, the rest of the elephants were carefully lured through the lanes and funneled to the rear of the Roman army, where they were dealt with. És recordada per ser la darrera batalla en la que es van enfrontar el general cartaginès Anníbal Barca i Publi Corneli Escipió. [16], Scipio now marched with his center towards the Carthaginian center, which was under the direct command of Hannibal. Como consecuencia de la derrota en la segunda guerra púnica, Cartago sería forzada al desarme militar, y con la misma condición impuesta al ser derrotada en la primera guerra púnica, prohibiéndosele tener una flota de guerra, algo que rompía su estatus de potencia. Hannibal had 36,000 infantry to Scipio's 29,000. The Carthaginian cavalry, acting on the instructions of Hannibal, allowed the Roman cavalry to chase them in order to lure them away from the battlefield so that they wouldn't attack the Carthaginian armies in the rear. Scipio, now powerful enough, proposed to end the war by directly invading the Carthaginian homeland. The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield. Scipio knew that elephants could be ordered to charge forward, but they could only continue their charge in a straight line. A pesar de que Aníbal estaba en superioridad numérica al comienzo de la batalla, Escipión concibió una estrategia para confundir y derrotar a sus elefantes de guerra. Cundió el nerviosismo entre algunos de los elefantes, pues habían sido capturados recientemente, que retrocedieron en estampida contra la propia caballería númida de Tiqueo, creando un gran desorden. Por otro lado, entre las filas romanas hubo 1500 muertos[21]​ y 4000 heridos. Las condiciones impuestas a Cartago fueron humillantes. Thousands of Carthaginians, including Hannibal, managed to escape the slaughter. This allowed the Romans to establish a casus belli for the Third Punic War when the Carthaginians defended themselves from Numidian encroachments in which the Romans did not intervene. Aníbal ordenó avanzar a la segunda unidad para apoyar el ataque; sin embargo, los legionarios romanos comenzaron el contraataque antes de que llegara el apoyo, ya que, provistos de sus escudos corporales, consiguieron rechazarles. La alargada segunda línea cartaginesa avanzó, obligando a los hastati a retroceder, por lo que Escipión ordenó que avanzaran los princeps de la segunda línea. Los que no fueron alcanzados y muertos huyeron despavoridos hacia el desierto. Aníbal ordenó entonces a la segunda línea que impidiese activamente, por las armas si fuera necesario, que la primera retrocediera. Batalla de Zama is a "wargame", based on the battle at Zama 202 BC, where Annibal lost against Publio Cornelio Escipion. [6]:270, Initially, Scipio received no levy troops, and he sailed to Sicily with a group of 7,000 heterogeneous volunteers. 2. Entonces, la caballería romana de Cayo Lelio y los jinetes númidas de Masinisa, ya reorganizados tras la persecución de los jinetes de Tiqueo, regresaron en aquel momento al campo de batalla. This would have allowed him to complete a victory with his reserves in the third line and overlap Scipio's lines. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal. Pocas veces dos generales tan influyentes en la historia se han visto cara a cara antes de la batalla. After a close contest, his first line was pushed back by the Roman hastati. Hannibal also employed 80 war elephants. At the outset of the battle, Hannibal unleashed his elephants and skirmishers against the Roman troops in order to break the cohesion of their lines and exploit the breaches that could be opened. A batalla de Zama, librada o 19 de outubro do 202 a.C., foi unha batalla decisiva da segunda guerra púnica. Scipio reinforced the hastati with the second-line principes.[10]. La primera unidad estaba formada por 12 000 mercenarios infantes entre ligures, galos, mauritanos y baleares;[4]​[16]​ la segunda, por africanos y cartagineses, de los cuales había 10 000 ciudadanos que iban a luchar para defender su tierra,[17]​ y una legión de 4000 macedonios[18]​ al mando de Sópatro;[19]​ la tercera unidad estaba formada por 15 000 a 18 000 infantes veteranos de Aníbal,[4]​[17]​ en su gran mayoría brutios, directamente bajo sus órdenes. A Batalla de Zama egy kiváló társasjáték, 2 játékos részére. The treaty bankrupted Carthage and destroyed any chance of its being a military power in the future, although its economic recovery was quick. Las bajas cartaginesas se elevaron a alrededor de 20 000 muertos,[20]​ junto con 11 000 heridos y 15 000 prisioneros. From Playa del Espejo, Los Alcázares 63 min . Contact the author and request a version of this image in a different language. After defeating Carthaginian and Numidian armies at the battles of Utica and the Great Plains, Scipio imposed peace terms on the Carthaginians, who had no choice but to accept them. Hannibal was first to march and reach the plains of Zama Regia, which were suitable for cavalry maneuvering. Soon after Scipio's victory at Zama the war ended, with the Carthaginian senate suing for peace. Scipio and Hannibal rearrange their troops into a single line and the battle remains a stalemate until the Roman cavalry returns and attacks Hannibal's infantry from the rear. [10], Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Army and Fleet of Publius Scipio's African Campaign: 204 BC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Zama&oldid=990836022, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 19:46. Tras esto ejerció como funcionario del tesoro en Cartago, pero los sufetes le acusaron de robar fondos del Estado. Los romanos capturaron también 133 estandartes militares y once elefantes. Hannibal waited for Scipio to attack. A batalla de Zama, librada o 19 de outubro do 202 a.C., foi unha batalla decisiva da segunda guerra púnica.Nesta batalla o exército da República Romana, liderado por Publio Cornelio Escipión o Africano, derrotou as forzas de Cartago lideradas por Aníbal.Logo desta derrota, o senado de Cartago asinou un tratado de paz, rematando así unha guerra de case 20 anos. El general cartaginés consiguió unir a los hombres que pudo traer de Italia, los restos del ejército cartaginés en África, los evacuados del ejército de su hermano Magón en Liguria, los cuatro mil soldados macedonios enviados por Filipo V y nuevos contingentes de caballería númida de jefes tribales que aún permanecían fieles a Cartago. Unlike the treaty that ended the First Punic War, the terms Carthage acceded to were so punishing that it was never able to challenge Rome for supremacy of the Mediterranean again. Only 55,000 survived. [6]:271 He landed at Utica and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of the Great Plains in 203 BC. Laelius, the commander of the Roman left wing, charged against the Carthaginian right. [9] The two men are said to have met face-to-face before the battle. Neutralizado el ataque de los elefantes, la caballería romana y de sus aliados númidas maesilios (Numidia Oriental) comenzaron a perseguir a la caballería cartaginesa y de sus aliados númidas masesilios (Numidia Occidental). Hannibal offered a treaty that would give up any claims to overseas territories to ensure the sovereignty of Carthage. Tras unos días regresarían a Cartago derrotados. He created lanes between the regiments across the depth of his forces and hid them with maniples of skirmishers. In 205 BC Scipio returned to Rome, where he was elected consul by unanimous vote. The panicked elephants turn on the Carthaginian left wing and rampage through it. In addition, Scipio ordered the cavalry to blow loud horns to frighten the beasts, which partly succeeded, and several rampaging elephants turned towards the Carthaginian left wing and disordered it completely. 30-42 (en inglés), Según Livio, "más de veinte mil fueron muertos, y un número aproximadamente igual de ellos capturados". Las caballerías de Masinisa y Lelio atacaron y provocaron la huida de la caballería númida de Tiqueo, mientras que los veteranos de Aníbal comenzaban a ganar terreno. Las tropas de Aníbal comenzaron a retroceder, por lo que el líder púnico volvió a ordenar que no se le permitiese marchar hacia atrás, dando como resultado un movimiento similar al anterior: la segunda línea se dividió y se reposicionó en las alas de la tercera. Scipio deployed his army in three lines: the first was composed of the hastati, the second of principes and the third of the triarii. RUTA 1. At the same time, the Carthaginians recalled Hannibal's army from Italy. Scipio refused, saying that it was either unconditional surrender or battle. The stronger right wing was composed of the Numidian cavalry and commanded by Masinissa, while the left was composed of Italian cavalry under the command of Laelius. Roman right wing charges and routs the Carthaginian cavalry, followed by the Roman left wing routing the Carthaginian right wing. [8] Hannibal now charged with his second line. Las unidades se encontraban separadas por pequeños pasillos que les permitían maniobrar, por los cuales debían escapar los hostigadores vélites cuando la carga cartaginesa se hiciera insostenible, al mismo tiempo que evitarían que los elefantes rompieran la formación. Again, it was not allowed to merge with the third line and was forced to the wings, along with the first line. Their presence is widely discounted as Roman propaganda, although T. Dorey suggests that there may be a grain of truth here if the Carthaginians recruited a trivial and unofficial number of mercenaries from Macedonia.[13]. The Romans suffered 2,500 dead.[17]. [15] The attack was met by Roman skirmishers. Finally, Scipio's cavalry returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal's army in the rear, routing and destroying it. Defeated on their home ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the 17-year war. Sin embargo, luego de perseguir a Tiqueo, tanto Masinisa como Lelio volvieron al campo de batalla y atacaron a los veteranos de Aníbal por la retaguardia, provocando su casi completa aniquilación y el final de la batalla. Tucker, 2010: 58; Delbruck, 1990: 370, 378. Nederlands: Animatie van de gebeurtenissen bij de Slag bij Zama Regia. Esta derrota marcaba el final de la segunda guerra púnica. Batalla de Zama Produïda el 19 d’octubre del 202 a.C, va significar la fi de la Segona Guerra Púnica. Hannibal deployed his troops facing northwest, while Scipio deployed his troops in front of the Carthaginian army facing southeast. No obstante, Escipión y sus partidarios pudieron convencer al Senado de que ratificara el plan, y a Escipión se le dio la autoridad necesaria para intentar la invasión. Date: 8 May 2015: Source: Own work: Author: Zirguezi: This file contains text that might be in a language different from your own. The Roman Senate ratified the treaty. Atacaron la formación compacta de los cartagineses desde la retaguardia, de manera que se produjo el colapso del ejército de Aníbal, quien hubo de huir a Hadrumentum ante el temor a una posible persecución por parte de las tropas de Escipión.

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